Lesson 55 Past perfect
Last week we looked at the 現在完了形 and 過去形, so this week we will look at the 過去完了形 (had + 過去分詞).
Shaun: My mother came to visit me last weekend. When she arrived, I had completely cleaned my apartment, so she was quite impressed.
Satoshi: Really? You mean she watched you clean your apartment?
Satoshi seems to imagine that Shaun cleaned his apartment while his mother watched him. But Satoshi has actually misunderstood the order of the actions because he’s confused by Shaun using the 過去完了形. The 過去完了形 is used to describe past actions that happened before other past actions, so “When she arrived, I had completely cleaned my apartment” means “I completely cleaned my apartment and then she arrived.” So the 過去完了形 describes earlier actions.